There is a redundant (duplicate, multiple) publication case when the authors present the same data in several publications or the same article in more than one journal without appropriate justification, permission or crossreferencing.
Several forms of duplicate submission exist: literal, partial (but substantial) and by paraphrasing. All these form
of redundant or duplicate submission are deterred in our editorial policy, even if authors submit for the publication various papers based on the same research results.
Any manuscript, if it is found in redundant (duplicate) publication, will be subject to duplicate submission/publication sanctions.
The concept of Authorship is not easy to establish. The "author" of a manuscript should have enough responsibility for a
significant aspect of the research or preparation of the manuscript, indeed, he should have brought a significant contribution to one or more among conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study, and should have approved the final form of the manuscript. In other words, an author should have the knowledges of the manuscript enough to be able to defend it publicly.
Often we could find guest or gift author in a manuscript where he is declared as an author without having the authorship.
The first role (guest) is assumed by people who give more
visibility to the authors, although they have no correlation with the research regarding the publication.
Gift authors are usually involved in mutual improvement of CV of colleagues that will be included as authors only with the aim to “reciprocate the favor”.
If one of the parties involved in the publication of a manuscript (an author or the author’s institution, a reviewer, editor or publisher) has somehow a relationship that tends to adversely affect their actions, then
there is a
conflict of interest (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). Such actions could have minor or major potential in order to influence any form of judgment. Anyway, not all relationships represent true conflict of interest.
The conflict of interest is more effective where it may influence own actions; of course, the financial relationships are those that most easily identifiable as conflicts of interest and the most likely to undermine the credibility of the publisher, the authors, the editors, the reviewers.
Even if you configure personal interests or relationships with third parties, or related to academic career, you may incur
in a conflict of interest.
Authors who exploit results or work of another author without permission, credit, or acknowledgment are committing
In the scientific community, plagiarism carried out by students, professors, or researchers is considered truly as academic dishonesty or academic fraud, so whoever practice such fraud is subject to academic censure, up to the expulsion.
Plagiarism detection software are adopted from important institutions in order to disclose potential plagiarism and to deter
authors from this fraud.
Plagiarism term derives from the Latin word ‘to kidnap’, and it is an inadmissible unethical conduct worldwide. It is defined as the appropriation of someone else idea’s. Literal copying, substantial copying and paraphrasing are the most common forms of plagiarism among the authors.
Plagiarism is an unacceptable abuse for the Publisher and so it will be repressed by sanctions imposed to authors of plagiarizing manuscript, whether published or unpublished.
Authors are known to self-cite their previous work
but excessive citation may fall under citation manipulation.
Citation manipulation or excessive self-citation is more prominent when articles contain references to other works and/or articles that do not contribute to the content; they should contain references included within the paragraphs for the sole purpose of increasing citations or misrepresent the importance of the specific work or article.
Citation manipulation is therefore a form of unethical editorial behaviour and in this way must be treated. Strategic self-citations which are used for manipulation must be identified and eliminated, as they influence not only the quality and informative character of the article but the journal’s credibility as well.
Activities by authors aiming to increase the number of citations to a given author’s paper, or to papers published in a particular journal represent an unacceptable abuse for
Praise Worthy Prize and so they will be repressed by sanctions imposed to authors of citing manuscript, whether published or unpublished.
Data fabrication is intended as making up data or results and reporting them in a manuscript, while data falsification refers to the manipulation of experiments or the modification of obtained results such that the research is not accurately represented in the literature.
Since data fabrication and falsification could lead to important consequences, they represent an unacceptable abuse for
Praise Worthy Prize and so they will be repressed by sanctions imposed to authors of manuscript where fabricated or falsified experimental results or manipulated images will be found.